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Linux系统查询硬件信息命令大全

在linux系统中,有很多命令可以用于查询主机的硬件信息,有些命令仅仅针对于特定的硬件部件,比如cpu,内存等,而有些命令可以查询很多的硬件信息。

这篇帖子简单地带大家了解一下最常用的查询各种硬件信息的命令,其中包括lscpu,hwinfo,lshw,dmidecode,lspci等等。

1. lscpu
lscpu命令可以用来查询处理器cpu的详细信息,只需要简单地输入lscpu即可,如下所示,它本身也没有提供更多选项和功能可供选择。
$ lscpu
Architecture: x86_64
CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order: Little Endian
CPU(s): 4
On-line CPU(s) list: 0-3
Thread(s) per core: 1
Core(s) per socket: 4
Socket(s): 1
NUMA node(s): 1
Vendor ID: GenuineIntel
CPU family: 6
Model: 23
Stepping: 10
CPU MHz: 1998.000
BogoMIPS: 5302.48
Virtualization: VT-x
L1d cache: 32K
L1i cache: 32K
L2 cache: 2048K
NUMA node0 CPU(s): 0-3

2. lshw - 显示硬件信息列表
这个命令用途广泛,它可以根据你的需求以详细或概要的形式列出许多个不同硬件的参数信息,其中包括cpu,内存,磁盘,usb控制器,网卡等等,lshw实质上是从/proc文件目录下的不同文件中提取对应的硬件信息。
$ sudo lshw -short

H/W path Device Class Description
===================================================
system ()
/0 bus DG35EC
/0/0 processor Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz
/0/0/1 memory 2MiB L2 cache
/0/0/3 memory 32KiB L1 cache
/0/2 memory 32KiB L1 cache
/0/4 memory 64KiB BIOS
/0/14 memory 8GiB System Memory
/0/14/0 memory 2GiB DIMM DDR2 Synchronous 667 MHz (1.5 ns)
/0/14/1 memory 2GiB DIMM DDR2 Synchronous 667 MHz (1.5 ns)
/0/14/2 memory 2GiB DIMM DDR2 Synchronous 667 MHz (1.5 ns)
/0/14/3 memory 2GiB DIMM DDR2 Synchronous 667 MHz (1.5 ns)
/0/100 bridge 82G35 Express DRAM Controller
/0/100/2 display 82G35 Express Integrated Graphics Controller
/0/100/2.1 display 82G35 Express Integrated Graphics Controller
/0/100/19 eth0 network 82566DC Gigabit Network Connection
/0/100/1a bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #4
/0/100/1a.1 bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #5
/0/100/1a.7 bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #2
/0/100/1b multimedia 82801H (ICH8 Family) HD Audio Controller
/0/100/1c bridge 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 1
/0/100/1c.1 bridge 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 2
/0/100/1c.2 bridge 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 3
/0/100/1c.2/0 storage JMB368 IDE controller
/0/100/1d bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #1
/0/100/1d.1 bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #2
/0/100/1d.2 bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #3
/0/100/1d.7 bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #1
/0/100/1e bridge 82801 PCI Bridge
/0/100/1e/5 bus FW322/323 [TrueFire] 1394a Controller
/0/100/1f bridge 82801HB/HR (ICH8/R) LPC Interface Controller
/0/100/1f.2 storage 82801H (ICH8 Family) 4 port SATA Controller [IDE mode] /0/100/1f.3 bus 82801H (ICH8 Family) SMBus Controller
/0/100/1f.5 storage 82801HR/HO/HH (ICH8R/DO/DH) 2 port SATA Controller [IDE m
/0/1 scsi3 storage
/0/1/0.0.0 /dev/sda disk 500GB ST3500418AS
/0/1/0.0.0/1 /dev/sda1 volume 70GiB Windows NTFS volume
/0/1/0.0.0/2 /dev/sda2 volume 395GiB Extended partition
/0/1/0.0.0/2/5 /dev/sda5 volume 97GiB HPFS/NTFS partition
/0/1/0.0.0/2/6 /dev/sda6 volume 97GiB Linux filesystem partition
/0/1/0.0.0/2/7 /dev/sda7 volume 1952MiB Linux swap / Solaris partition
/0/1/0.0.0/2/8 /dev/sda8 volume 198GiB Linux filesystem partition
/0/3 scsi4 storage
/0/3/0.0.0 /dev/cdrom disk DVD RW DRU-190A

3. hwinfo - Hardware Information
hwinfo同样是一个使用非常广泛的硬件信息查询命令,类似于lshw,它同样可以详细或概要地报告多个部件的硬件信息,但不同的是,它有时可以给出比lshw更多的信息。
$ hwinfo --short
cpu:
Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2000 MHz
Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2000 MHz
Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2666 MHz
Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q8400 @ 2.66GHz, 2666 MHz
keyboard:
/dev/input/event2 AT Translated Set 2 keyboard
mouse:
/dev/input/mice Microsoft Basic Optical Mouse v2.0
graphics card:
Intel 965G-1
Intel 82G35 Express Integrated Graphics Controller
sound:
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) HD Audio Controller
storage:
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) 4 port SATA IDE Controller
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) 2 port SATA IDE Controller
JMicron JMB368 IDE controller
network:
eth0 Intel 82566DC Gigabit Network Connection
network interface:
eth0 Ethernet network interface
lo Loopback network interface
disk:
/dev/sda ST3500418AS
partition:
/dev/sda1 Partition
/dev/sda2 Partition
/dev/sda5 Partition
/dev/sda6 Partition
/dev/sda7 Partition
/dev/sda8 Partition
cdrom:
/dev/sr0 SONY DVD RW DRU-190A
usb controller:
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #4
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #5
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #2
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #1
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #2
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #3
Intel 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #1

4. lspci - 显示pci总线相关信息
lscpi命令可以列出pci总线上信息,以及所有连接到pci总线上的设备信息,比如VGA适配器,显卡,网卡,usb端口,sata控制器, 光线模块等等。
$ lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 82G35 Express DRAM Controller (rev 03)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 82G35 Express Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 03)
00:02.1 Display controller: Intel Corporation 82G35 Express Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 03)
00:19.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82566DC Gigabit Network Connection (rev 02)
00:1a.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #4 (rev 02)
00:1a.1 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #5 (rev 02)
00:1a.7 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #2 (rev 02)
00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) HD Audio Controller (rev 02)
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 1 (rev 02)
00:1c.1 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 2 (rev 02)
00:1c.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) PCI Express Port 3 (rev 02)
00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #1 (rev 02)
00:1d.1 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #2 (rev 02)
00:1d.2 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB UHCI Controller #3 (rev 02)
00:1d.7 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) USB2 EHCI Controller #1 (rev 02)
00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 PCI Bridge (rev f2)
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 82801HB/HR (ICH8/R) LPC Interface Controller (rev 02)
00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) 4 port SATA Controller [IDE mode] (rev 02)
00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 82801H (ICH8 Family) SMBus Controller (rev 02)
00:1f.5 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82801HR/HO/HH (ICH8R/DO/DH) 2 port SATA Controller [IDE mode] (rev 02)
03:00.0 IDE interface: JMicron Technology Corp. JMB368 IDE controller
04:05.0 FireWire (IEEE 1394): LSI Corporation FW322/323 [TrueFire] 1394a Controller (rev 70)

可以使用grep命令筛选出特定的设备信息。
$ lspci -v | grep "VGA" -A 12

5. lsscsi - 列出scsi设备信息
列出scsi/sata设备信息,比如硬盘驱动器,光盘驱动器。
$ lsscsi
[3:0:0:0] disk ATA ST3500418AS CC38 /dev/sda
[4:0:0:0] cd/dvd SONY DVD RW DRU-190A 1.63 /dev/sr0

6. lsusb - 列出usb总线信息,及设备信息
该命令可以显示USB控制器及连接到控制的设备信息。默认情况下,只显示概要信息,可以通过-v选项指示其显示更多的硬件信息。
$ lsusb
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 006 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 005 Device 002: ID 045e:00cb Microsoft Corp. Basic Optical Mouse v2.0
Bus 005 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub

上面信息显示,在该系统中,有一个usb端口正被鼠标占用。

7. Inxi
inxi命令是一个大的bash脚本文件,其通过从不同的信息来源和命令中获取硬件信息,最后能给出一个颜色高亮的,适合于非专业人员阅读的硬件信息报告。(这个可以参照inxi:可一键查询Linux系统软硬件信息的Shell脚本

8. lsblk - 列出块设备信息
列出所有块设备信息,其中包括硬盘分区信息,以及其他存储设备,如光盘,闪存等。
$ lsblk
NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda 8:0 0 465.8G 0 disk
├─sda1 8:1 0 70G 0 part
├─sda2 8:2 0 1K 0 part
├─sda5 8:5 0 97.7G 0 part /media/4668484A68483B47
├─sda6 8:6 0 97.7G 0 part /
├─sda7 8:7 0 1.9G 0 part [SWAP] └─sda8 8:8 0 198.5G 0 part /media/13f35f59-f023-4d98-b06f-9dfaebefd6c1
sr0 11:0 1 1024M 0 rom

原文来自:http://linux.cn/article-2958-1.html

转载请注明:运维派 » Linux系统查询硬件信息命令大全

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