使用whiptail在shell脚本中创建交互式对话框?

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当你在终端环境下安装新的软件时,你可以经常看到信息对话框弹出,需要你的输入。对话框的类型有密码箱,检查表,菜单,等等。他们可以引导你以一种直观的方式输入必要的信息,使用这样的用户友好的对话框的好处是显而易见的。如下图所示:

shell-1

当你写一个交互式shell脚本,你可以使用这样的对话框来接受用户的输入。whiptail可以shell脚本中创建基于终端的对话框,消息框的过程,类似于Zenityxdialog GUI脚本代码。预先安装在所有的Linux发布版本中。

下面来看看whiptail的用法:

创建一个消息框

一个消息框中显示一个确认按钮继续任意的文本消息

语法:

whiptail –title “<message box title>” –msgbox “<text to show>” <height> <width>

实例:

#!/bin/bash
whiptail --title "Test Message Box" --msgbox "Create a message box with whiptail. Choose Ok to continue." 10 60

shell-2

创建一个yes/no对话框

用户输入yes或no的对话框。

语法:

whiptail –title “<dialog box title>” –yesno “<text to show>” <height> <width>

实例:

#!/bin/bash
if (whiptail --title "Test Yes/No Box" --yesno "Choose between Yes and No." 10 60) then
    echo "You chose Yes. Exit status was $?."
else
    echo "You chose No. Exit status was $?."
fi

shell-3

或者,你可以是“–yes-button” ,”–no-button”选项。

#!/bin/bash
if (whiptail --title "Test Yes/No Box" --yes-button "Skittles" --no-button "M&M's"  --yesno "Which do you like better?" 10 60) then
    echo "You chose Skittles Exit status was $?."
else
    echo "You chose M&M's. Exit status was $?."
fi

shell-4

创建一个表单输入

如果你想用户输入任意的文本您可以使用一个输入框

语法:

whiptail –title “<input box title>” –inputbox “<text to show>” <height> <width> <default-text>

实例:

#!/bin/bash
PET=$(whiptail --title "Test Free-form Input Box" --inputbox "What is your pet's name?" 10 60 Wigglebutt 3>&1 1>&2 2>&3)
 
exitstatus=$?
if [ $exitstatus = 0 ]; then
    echo "Your pet name is:" $PET
else
    echo "You chose Cancel."
fi

shell-5

创建一个密码框

用户需要输入敏感信息时密码框是有用的

语法:

whiptail –title “<password box title>” –passwordbox “<text to show>” <height> <width>

实例:

#!/bin/bash
PASSWORD=$(whiptail --title "Test Password Box" --passwordbox "Enter your password and choose Ok to continue." 10 60 3>&1 1>&2 2>&3)
 
exitstatus=$?
if [ $exitstatus = 0 ]; then
    echo "Your password is:" $PASSWORD
else
    echo "You chose Cancel."
fi

shell-6

创建一个菜单栏

当你想让用户选择一个任意数量的选择中,你可以使用菜单框

语法:

whiptail –title “<menu title>” –menu “<text to show>” <height> <width> <menu height> [ <tag> <item> ] . . .

实例:

#!/bin/bash
OPTION=$(whiptail --title "Test Menu Dialog" --menu "Choose your option" 15 60 4 \
"1" "Grilled Spicy Sausage" \
"2" "Grilled Halloumi Cheese" \
"3" "Charcoaled Chicken Wings" \
"4" "Fried Aubergine"  3>&1 1>&2 2>&3)
 
exitstatus=$?
if [ $exitstatus = 0 ]; then
    echo "Your chosen option:" $OPTION
else
    echo "You chose Cancel."
fi

shell-7

创建radiolist对话框

语法:

whiptail –title “<radiolist title>” –radiolist “<text to show>” <height> <width> <list height> [ <tag> <item> <status> ] . . .

实例:

#!/bin/bash
DISTROS=$(whiptail --title "Test Checklist Dialog" --radiolist \
"What is the Linux distro of your choice?" 15 60 4 \
"debian" "Venerable Debian" ON \
"ubuntu" "Popular Ubuntu" OFF \
"centos" "Stable CentOS" OFF \
"mint" "Rising Star Mint" OFF 3>&1 1>&2 2>&3)
 
exitstatus=$?
if [ $exitstatus = 0 ]; then
    echo "The chosen distro is:" $DISTROS
else
    echo "You chose Cancel."
fi

shell-9

创建一个对话框

当你想让用户选择一个列表中选择多个选项的清单对话框是有用的,radiolist对话框,只允许选择一个

语法:

whiptail –title “<checklist title>” –checklist “<text to show>” <height> <width> <list height> [ <tag> <item> <status> ] . . .

实例:

#!/bin/bash
DISTROS=$(whiptail --title "Test Checklist Dialog" --checklist \
"Choose preferred Linux distros" 15 60 4 \
"debian" "Venerable Debian" ON \
"ubuntu" "Popular Ubuntu" OFF \
"centos" "Stable CentOS" ON \
"mint" "Rising Star Mint" OFF 3>&1 1>&2 2>&3)
 
exitstatus=$?
if [ $exitstatus = 0 ]; then
    echo "Your favorite distros are:" $DISTROS
else
    echo "You chose Cancel."
fi

shell-10

创建一个进度条

进度条是一个用户友好的对话框。whiptail从标准输入读取一个百分数(0~100)显示一个相应的计数

语法:

whiptail –gauge “<test to show>” <height> <width> <inital percent>

实例:

#!/bin/bash
{
    for ((i = 0 ; i <= 100 ; i+=20)); do
        sleep 1
        echo $i
    done
} | whiptail --gauge "Please wait while installing" 6 60 0

shell-11

很容易在交互式shell脚本创建有用的对话框了吧。后续需要写一个交互式的shell脚本,试着用whiptail:)

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  1. 雪鹰领主说道:

    厉害的啊,这都能整出来

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