首页 运维干货企业级日志平台新秀Grafana Loki,比ELK轻量多了~

企业级日志平台新秀Grafana Loki,比ELK轻量多了~

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最近,在对公司容器云的日志方案进行设计的时候,发现主流的ELK或者EFK比较重,再加上现阶段对于ES复杂的搜索功能很多都用不上最终选择了Grafana开源的Loki日志系统,下面介绍下Loki的背景。

背景和动机

当我们的容器云运行的应用或者某个节点出现问题了,解决思路应该如下:

我们的监控使用的是基于Prometheus体系进行改造的,Prometheus中比较重要的是Metric和Alert,Metric是来说明当前或者历史达到了某个值,Alert设置Metric达到某个特定的基数触发了告警,但是这些信息明显是不够的。我们都知道,Kubernetes的基本单位是Pod,Pod把日志输出到stdout和stderr,平时有什么问题我们通常在界面或者通过命令查看相关的日志,举个例子:当我们的某个Pod的内存变得很大,触发了我们的Alert,这个时候管理员,去页面查询确认是哪个Pod有问题,然后要确认Pod内存变大的原因,我们还需要去查询Pod的日志,如果没有日志系统,那么我们就需要到页面或者使用命令进行查询了:

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如果,这个时候应用突然挂了,这个时候我们就无法查到相关的日志了,所以需要引入日志系统,统一收集日志,而使用ELK的话,就需要在Kibana和Grafana之间切换,影响用户体验。所以 ,loki的第一目的就是最小化度量和日志的切换成本,有助于减少异常事件的响应时间和提高用户的体验。

ELK存在的问题

现有的很多日志采集的方案都是采用全文检索对日志进行索引(如ELK方案),优点是功能丰富,允许复杂的操作。但是,这些方案往往规模复杂,资源占用高,操作苦难。很多功能往往用不上,大多数查询只关注一定时间范围和一些简单的参数(如host、service等),使用这些解决方案就有点杀鸡用牛刀的感觉了。

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因此,Loki的第二个目的是,在查询语言的易操作性和复杂性之间可以达到一个权衡。

成本

全文检索的方案也带来成本问题,简单的说就是全文搜索(如ES)的倒排索引的切分和共享的成本较高。后来出现了其他不同的设计方案如:OKlog,采用最终一致的、基于网格的分布策略。这两个设计决策提供了大量的成本降低和非常简单的操作,但是查询不够方便。因此,Loki的第三个目的是,提高一个更具成本效益的解决方案。

架构

整体架构

Loki的架构如下:

图片

不难看出,Loki的架构非常简单,使用了和Prometheus一样的标签来作为索引,也就是说,你通过这些标签既可以查询日志的内容也可以查询到监控的数据,不但减少了两种查询之间的切换成本,也极大地降低了日志索引的存储。Loki将使用与Prometheus相同的服务发现和标签重新标记库,编写了pormtail,在Kubernetes中promtail以DaemonSet方式运行在每个节点中,通过Kubernetes API等到日志的正确元数据,并将它们发送到Loki。下面是日志的存储架构:

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读写

日志数据的写主要依托的是Distributor和Ingester两个组件,整体的流程如下:

Distributor

一旦promtail收集日志并将其发送给loki,Distributor就是第一个接收日志的组件。由于日志的写入量可能很大,所以不能在它们传入时将它们写入数据库。这会毁掉数据库。我们需要批处理和压缩数据。

Loki通过构建压缩数据块来实现这一点,方法是在日志进入时对其进行gzip操作,组件ingester是一个有状态的组件,负责构建和刷新chunck,当chunk达到一定的数量或者时间后,刷新到存储中去。每个流的日志对应一个ingester,当日志到达Distributor后,根据元数据和hash算法计算出应该到哪个ingester上面。

图片

此外,为了冗余和弹性,我们将其复制n(默认情况下为3)次。

Ingester

Ingester接收到日志并开始构建chunk:

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基本上就是将日志进行压缩并附加到chunk上面。一旦chunk“填满”(数据达到一定数量或者过了一定期限),ingester将其刷新到数据库。我们对块和索引使用单独的数据库,因为它们存储的数据类型不同。

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刷新一个chunk之后,ingester然后创建一个新的空chunk并将新条目添加到该chunk中。

Querier

读取就非常简单了,由Querier负责给定一个时间范围和标签选择器,Querier查看索引以确定哪些块匹配,并通过greps将结果显示出来。它还从Ingester获取尚未刷新的最新数据。

对于每个查询,一个查询器将为您显示所有相关日志。实现了查询并行化,提供分布式grep,使即使是大型查询也是足够的。

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可扩展性

Loki的索引存储可以是cassandra/bigtable/dynamodb,而chuncks可以是各种对象存储,Querier和Distributor都是无状态的组件。对于ingester他虽然是有状态的但是,当新的节点加入或者减少,整节点间的chunk会重新分配,已适应新的散列环。而Loki底层存储的实现Cortex已经 在实际的生产中投入使用多年了。有了这句话,我可以放心的在环境中实验一把了。

部署

Loki的安装非常简单。

创建namespace

oc new-project loki

权限设置

oc adm policy add-scc-to-user anyuid -z default -n loki  
oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-user cluster-admin system:serviceaccount:loki:default


安装Loki

安装命令:

oc create -f statefulset.json -n loki

statefulset.json如下:

{  
    "apiVersion": "apps/v1",  
    "kind": "StatefulSet",  
    "metadata": {  
        "name": "loki"  
    },  
    "spec": {  
        "podManagementPolicy": "OrderedReady",  
        "replicas": 1,  
        "revisionHistoryLimit": 10,  
        "selector": {  
            "matchLabels": {  
                "app": "loki"  
            }  
        },  
        "serviceName": "womping-stoat-loki-headless",  
        "template": {  
            "metadata": {  
                "annotations": {  
                    "checksum/config": "da297d66ee53e0ce68b58e12be7ec5df4a91538c0b476cfe0ed79666343df72b",  
                    "prometheus.io/port": "http-metrics",  
                    "prometheus.io/scrape": "true"  
                },  
                "creationTimestamp": null,  
                "labels": {  
                    "app": "loki",  
                    "name": "loki"  
                }  
            },  
            "spec": {  
                "affinity": {},  
                "containers": \[  
                    {  
                        "args": \[  
                            "-config.file=/etc/loki/local-config.yaml"  
                        \],  
                        "image": "grafana/loki:latest",  
                        "imagePullPolicy": "IfNotPresent",  
                        "livenessProbe": {  
                            "failureThreshold": 3,  
                            "httpGet": {  
                                "path": "/ready",  
                                "port": "http-metrics",  
                                "scheme": "HTTP"  
                            },  
                            "initialDelaySeconds": 45,  
                            "periodSeconds": 10,  
                            "successThreshold": 1,  
                            "timeoutSeconds": 1  
                        },  
                        "name": "loki",  
                        "ports": \[  
                            {  
                                "containerPort": 3100,  
                                "name": "http-metrics",  
                                "protocol": "TCP"  
                            }  
                        \],  
                        "readinessProbe": {  
                            "failureThreshold": 3,  
                            "httpGet": {  
                                "path": "/ready",  
                                "port": "http-metrics",  
                                "scheme": "HTTP"  
                            },  
                            "initialDelaySeconds": 45,  
                            "periodSeconds": 10,  
                            "successThreshold": 1,  
                            "timeoutSeconds": 1  
                        },  
                        "resources": {},  
                        "terminationMessagePath": "/dev/termination-log",  
                        "terminationMessagePolicy": "File",  
                        "volumeMounts": \[  
                            {  
                                "mountPath": "/tmp/loki",  
                                "name": "storage"  
                            }  
                        \]  
                    }  
                \],  
                "dnsPolicy": "ClusterFirst",  
                "restartPolicy": "Always",  
                "schedulerName": "default-scheduler",  
                "terminationGracePeriodSeconds": 30,  
                "volumes": \[  
                    {  
                        "emptyDir": {},  
                        "name": "storage"  
                    }  
                \]  
            }  
        },  
        "updateStrategy": {  
            "type": "RollingUpdate"  
        }  
    }  
}


安装Promtail

安装命令:

oc create -f configmap.json -n loki

configmap.json如下:

{  
    "apiVersion": "v1",  
    "data": {  
        "promtail.yaml": "client:\\n  backoff\_config:\\n    maxbackoff: 5s\\n    maxretries: 5\\n    minbackoff: 100ms\\n  batchsize: 102400\\n  batchwait: 1s\\n  external\_labels: {}\\n  timeout: 10s\\npositions:\\n  filename: /run/promtail/positions.yaml\\nserver:\\n  http\_listen\_port: 3101\\ntarget\_config:\\n  sync\_period: 10s\\n\\nscrape\_configs:\\n- job\_name: kubernetes-pods-name\\n  pipeline\_stages:\\n    - docker: {}\\n    \\n  kubernetes\_sd\_configs:\\n  - role: pod\\n  relabel\_configs:\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_service__\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_node\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_host__\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: ^\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_service__\\n  - action: labelmap\\n    regex: \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label_(.+)\\n  - action: replace\\n    replacement: 1\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    - \_\_service\_\_\\n    target\_label: job\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    target\_label: namespace\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_name\\n    target\_label: instance\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: container\_name\\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*1/*.log\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_uid\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_path__\\n- job\_name: kubernetes-pods-app\\n  pipeline\_stages:\\n    - docker: {}\\n    \\n  kubernetes\_sd\_configs:\\n  - role: pod\\n  relabel\_configs:\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: .+\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_name\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_app\\n    target\_label: \_\_service\_\_\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_node\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_host__\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: ^\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_service__\\n  - action: labelmap\\n    regex: \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label_(.+)\\n  - action: replace\\n    replacement: 1\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    - \_\_service\_\_\\n    target\_label: job\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    target\_label: namespace\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_name\\n    target\_label: instance\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: container\_name\\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*1/*.log\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_uid\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_path__\\n- job\_name: kubernetes-pods-direct-controllers\\n  pipeline\_stages:\\n    - docker: {}\\n    \\n  kubernetes\_sd\_configs:\\n  - role: pod\\n  relabel\_configs:\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: .+\\n    separator: ''\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_name\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_app\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: ^(\[0-9a-z-.\]+)(-\[0-9a-f\]{8,10})\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_controller\_name\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_controller\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_service__\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_node\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_host__\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: ^\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_service__\\n  - action: labelmap\\n    regex: \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label_(.+)\\n  - action: replace\\n    replacement: 1\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    - \_\_service\_\_\\n    target\_label: job\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    target\_label: namespace\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_name\\n    target\_label: instance\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: container\_name\\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*1/*.log\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_uid\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_path__\\n- job\_name: kubernetes-pods-indirect-controller\\n  pipeline\_stages:\\n    - docker: {}\\n    \\n  kubernetes\_sd\_configs:\\n  - role: pod\\n  relabel\_configs:\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: .+\\n    separator: ''\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_name\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_app\\n  - action: keep\\n    regex: ^(\[0-9a-z-.\]+)(-\[0-9a-f\]{8,10})\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_controller\_name\\n  - action: replace\\n    regex: ^(\[0-9a-z-.\]+)(-\[0-9a-f\]{8,10})\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_controller\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_service__\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_node\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_host__\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: ^\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_service__\\n  - action: labelmap\\n    regex: \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label_(.+)\\n  - action: replace\\n    replacement: 1\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    - \_\_service\_\_\\n    target\_label: job\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    target\_label: namespace\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_name\\n    target\_label: instance\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: container\_name\\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*1/*.log\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_uid\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_path__\\n- job\_name: kubernetes-pods-static\\n  pipeline\_stages:\\n    - docker: {}\\n    \\n  kubernetes\_sd\_configs:\\n  - role: pod\\n  relabel\_configs:\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: ^\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_annotation\_kubernetes\_io\_config\_mirror\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label\_component\\n    target\_label: \_\_service__\\n  - source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_node\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_host__\\n  - action: drop\\n    regex: ^\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_service__\\n  - action: labelmap\\n    regex: \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_label_(.+)\\n  - action: replace\\n    replacement: 1\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    - \_\_service\_\_\\n    target\_label: job\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_namespace\\n    target\_label: namespace\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_name\\n    target\_label: instance\\n  - action: replace\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: container\_name\\n  - replacement: /var/log/pods/*$1/*.log\\n    separator: /\\n    source\_labels:\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_annotation\_kubernetes\_io\_config\_mirror\\n    - \_\_meta\_kubernetes\_pod\_container\_name\\n    target\_label: \_\_path__\\n"  
    },  
    "kind": "ConfigMap",  
    "metadata": {  
        "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-05T01:05:03Z",  
        "labels": {  
            "app": "promtail",  
            "chart": "promtail-0.12.0",  
            "heritage": "Tiller",  
            "release": "lame-zorse"  
        },  
        "name": "lame-zorse-promtail",  
        "namespace": "loki",  
        "resourceVersion": "17921611",  
        "selfLink": "/api/v1/namespaces/loki/configmaps/lame-zorse-promtail",  
        "uid": "30fcb896-cf79-11e9-b58e-e4a8b6cc47d2"  
    }  
}  




oc create -f daemonset.json -n loki


daemonset.json如下:

     {  
            "apiVersion": "apps/v1",  
            "kind": "DaemonSet",  
            "metadata": {  
                "annotations": {  
                    "deployment.kubernetes.io/revision": "2"  
                },  
                "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-05T01:16:37Z",  
                "generation": 2,  
                "labels": {  
                    "app": "promtail",  
                    "chart": "promtail-0.12.0",  
                    "heritage": "Tiller",  
                    "release": "lame-zorse"  
                },  
                "name": "lame-zorse-promtail",  
                "namespace": "loki"  
            },  
            "spec": {  
                "progressDeadlineSeconds": 600,  
                "replicas": 1,  
                "revisionHistoryLimit": 10,  
                "selector": {  
                    "matchLabels": {  
                        "app": "promtail",  
                        "release": "lame-zorse"  
                    }  
                },  
                "strategy": {  
                    "rollingUpdate": {  
                        "maxSurge": 1,  
                        "maxUnavailable": 1  
                    },  
                    "type": "RollingUpdate"  
                },  
                "template": {  
                    "metadata": {  
                        "annotations": {  
                            "checksum/config": "75a25ee4f2869f54d394bf879549a9c89c343981a648f8d878f69bad65dba809",  
                            "prometheus.io/port": "http-metrics",  
                            "prometheus.io/scrape": "true"  
                        },  
                        "creationTimestamp": null,  
                        "labels": {  
                            "app": "promtail",  
                            "release": "lame-zorse"  
                        }  
                    },  
                    "spec": {  
                        "affinity": {},  
                        "containers": \[  
                            {  
                                "args": \[  
                                    "-config.file=/etc/promtail/promtail.yaml",  
                                    "-client.url=http://loki.loki.svc:3100/api/prom/push"  
                                \],  
                                "env": \[  
                                    {  
                                        "name": "HOSTNAME",  
                                        "valueFrom": {  
                                            "fieldRef": {  
                                                "apiVersion": "v1",  
                                                "fieldPath": "spec.nodeName"  
                                            }  
                                        }  
                                    }  
                                \],  
                                "image": "grafana/promtail:v0.3.0",  
                                "imagePullPolicy": "IfNotPresent",  
                                "name": "promtail",  
                                "ports": \[  
                                    {  
                                        "containerPort": 3101,  
                                        "name": "http-metrics",  
                                        "protocol": "TCP"  
                                    }  
                                \],  
                                "readinessProbe": {  
                                    "failureThreshold": 5,  
                                    "httpGet": {  
                                        "path": "/ready",  
                                        "port": "http-metrics",  
                                        "scheme": "HTTP"  
                                    },  
                                    "initialDelaySeconds": 10,  
                                    "periodSeconds": 10,  
                                    "successThreshold": 1,  
                                    "timeoutSeconds": 1  
                                },  
                                "resources": {},  
                                "securityContext": {  
                                    "readOnlyRootFilesystem": true,  
                                    "runAsUser": 0  
                                },  
                                "terminationMessagePath": "/dev/termination-log",  
                                "terminationMessagePolicy": "File",  
                                "volumeMounts": \[  
                                    {  
                                        "mountPath": "/etc/promtail",  
                                        "name": "config"  
                                    },  
                                    {  
                                        "mountPath": "/run/promtail",  
                                        "name": "run"  
                                    },  
                                    {  
                                        "mountPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers",  
                                        "name": "docker",  
                                        "readOnly": true  
                                    },  
                                    {  
                                        "mountPath": "/var/log/pods",  
                                        "name": "pods",  
                                        "readOnly": true  
                                    }  
                                \]  
                            }  
                        \],  
                        "dnsPolicy": "ClusterFirst",  
                        "restartPolicy": "Always",  
                        "schedulerName": "default-scheduler",  
                        "securityContext": {},  
                        "terminationGracePeriodSeconds": 30,  
                        "volumes": \[  
                            {  
                                "configMap": {  
                                    "defaultMode": 420,  
                                    "name": "lame-zorse-promtail"  
                                },  
                                "name": "config"  
                            },  
                            {  
                                "hostPath": {  
                                    "path": "/run/promtail",  
                                    "type": ""  
                                },  
                                "name": "run"  
                            },  
                            {  
                                "hostPath": {  
                                    "path": "/var/lib/docker/containers",  
                                    "type": ""  
                                },  
                                "name": "docker"  
                            },  
                            {  
                                "hostPath": {  
                                    "path": "/var/log/pods",  
                                    "type": ""  
                                },  
                                "name": "pods"  
                            }  
                        \]  
                    }  
                }  
            }  
        }


安装服务

oc create -f service.json -n loki

service.json的内容如下:

{  
    "apiVersion": "v1",  
    "kind": "Service",  
    "metadata": {  
        "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-04T09:37:49Z",  
        "name": "loki",  
        "namespace": "loki",  
        "resourceVersion": "17800188",  
        "selfLink": "/api/v1/namespaces/loki/services/loki",  
        "uid": "a87fe237-cef7-11e9-b58e-e4a8b6cc47d2"  
    },  
    "spec": {  
        "externalTrafficPolicy": "Cluster",  
        "ports": \[  
            {  
                "name": "lokiport",  
                "port": 3100,  
                "protocol": "TCP",  
                "targetPort": 3100  
            }  
        \],  
        "selector": {  
            "app": "loki"  
        },  
        "sessionAffinity": "None",  
        "type": "NodePort"  
    },  
    "status": {  
        "loadBalancer": {}  
    }


语法

Loki提供了HTTP接口,我们这里就不详解了,大家可以看:https://github.com/grafana/loki/blob/master/docs/api.md

我们这里说下查询的接口如何使用。

第一步,获取当前Loki的元数据类型:

curl http://192.168.25.30:30972/api/prom/label  
{  
 "values": \["alertmanager", "app", "component", "container_name", "controller\_revision\_hash", "deployment", "deploymentconfig", "docker_registry", "draft", "filename", "instance", "job", "logging_infra", "metrics_infra", "name", "namespace", "openshift\_io\_component", "pod\_template\_generation", "pod\_template\_hash", "project", "projectname", "prometheus", "provider", "release", "router", "servicename", "statefulset\_kubernetes\_io\_pod\_name", "stream", "tekton\_dev\_pipeline", "tekton\_dev\_pipelineRun", "tekton\_dev\_pipelineTask", "tekton\_dev\_task", "tekton\_dev\_taskRun", "type", "webconsole"\]  
}


第二步,获取某个元数据类型的值:

curl http://192.168.25.30:30972/api/prom/label/namespace/values  
{"values":\["cicd","default","gitlab","grafanaserver","jenkins","jx-staging","kube-system","loki","mysql-exporter","new2","openshift-console","openshift-infra","openshift-logging","openshift-monitoring","openshift-node","openshift-sdn","openshift-web-console","tekton-pipelines","test111"\]}


第三步,根据label进行查询,例如:

http://192.168.25.30:30972/api/prom/query?direction=BACKWARD&limit=1000&regexp=&query={namespace="cicd"}&start=1567644457221000000&end=1567730857221000000&refId=A

参数解析:

  • query:一种查询语法详细见下面章节,{name=~“mysql.+”} or {namespace=“cicd”} |= “error”表示查询,namespace为CI/CD的日志中,有error字样的信息。
  • limit:返回日志的数量
  • start:开始时间,Unix时间表示方法 默认为,一小时前时间
  • end:结束时间,默认为当前时间
  • direction:forward或者backward,指定limit时候有用,默认为 backward
  • regexp:对结果进行regex过滤

LogQL语法

选择器

对于查询表达式的标签部分,将放在{}中,多个标签表达式用逗号分隔:

{app="mysql",name="mysql-backup"}

支持的符号有:

  • =:完全相同。
  • !=:不平等。
  • =~:正则表达式匹配。
  • !~:不要正则表达式匹配。

过滤表达式

编写日志流选择器后,您可以通过编写搜索表达式进一步过滤结果。搜索表达式可以文本或正则表达式。

如:

  • {job=“mysql”} |= “error”
  • {name=“kafka”} |~ “tsdb-ops.*io:2003”
  • {instance=~“kafka-[23]”,name=“kafka”} != kafka.server:type=ReplicaManager

支持多个过滤:

  • {job=“mysql”} |= “error” != “timeout”

目前支持的操作符:

  • |= line包含字符串。
  • != line不包含字符串。
  • |~ line匹配正则表达式。
  • !~ line与正则表达式不匹配。

表达式遵循https://github.com/google/re2/wiki/Syntax语法。

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