首页 Ansible教程Ansible常用模块详解

Ansible相关工具介绍,实例演示

Ansible-Playbook详解

运维派隶属马哥教育旗下专业运维社区,是国内成立最早的IT运维技术社区,欢迎关注公众号:yunweipai
领取学习更多免费Linux云计算、Python、Docker、K8s教程关注公众号:马哥linux运维

Ansible常用模块

2015年底270多个模块,2016年达到540个,2018年01月12日有1378个模块,2018年07月15日1852个模块,2019年05月25日(ansible 2.7.10)时2080个模块,2020年03月02日有3387个模块

虽然模块众多,但最常用的模块也就2,30个而已,针对特定业务只用10几个模块

常用模块帮助文档参考:

https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/modules/modules_by_category.html

Command 模块

功能:在远程主机执行命令,此为默认模块,可忽略-m选项

注意:此命令不支持 $VARNAME < > | ; & 等,用shell模块实现

范例:

[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m command -a 'chdir=/etc cat centos-release'
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
CentOS Linux release 7.7.1908 (Core)
10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
CentOS Linux release 8.1.1911 (Core)
[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m command -a 'chdir=/etc creates=/data/f1.txt cat centos-release'
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
CentOS Linux release 7.7.1908 (Core)
10.0.0.8 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
skipped, since /data/f1.txt exists
[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m command -a 'chdir=/etc removes=/data/f1.txt cat centos-release'
10.0.0.7 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
skipped, since /data/f1.txt does not exist
10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
CentOS Linux release 8.1.1911 (Core)

ansible websrvs -m command -a ‘service vsftpd start’ 
ansible websrvs -m command -a ‘echo magedu |passwd --stdin wang’   
ansible websrvs -m command -a 'rm -rf /data/'
ansible websrvs -m command -a 'echo hello > /data/hello.log'
ansible websrvs -m command -a "echo $HOSTNAME"
Shell模块

功能:和command相似,用shell执行命令

范例:

[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m shell -a "echo HOSTNAME"
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
ansible
10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
ansible
[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m shell -a 'echoHOSTNAME'
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
centos7.wangxiaochun.com
10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
centos8.localdomain

[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m shell -a 'echo centos | passwd --stdin wang'
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
Changing password for user wang.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
Changing password for user wang.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m shell -a 'ls -l /etc/shadow'
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
---------- 1 root root 889 Mar  2 14:34 /etc/shadow
10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
---------- 1 root root 944 Mar  2 14:34 /etc/shadow
[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m shell -a 'echo hello > /data/hello.log'
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>

[root@ansible ~]#ansible websrvs -m shell -a 'cat  /data/hello.log'
10.0.0.7 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
hello
10.0.0.8 | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
hello

注意:调用bash执行命令 类似 cat /tmp/test.md | awk -F‘|’ ‘{print 1,2}’ &> /tmp/example.txt 这些复杂命令,即使使用shell也可能会失败,解决办法:写到脚本时,copy到远程,执行,再把需要的结果拉回执行命令的机器

范例:将shell模块代替command,设为模块

[root@ansible ~]#vim /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
#修改下面一行
module_name = shell
Script模块

功能:在远程主机上运行ansible服务器上的脚本

范例:

ansible websrvs  -m script -a /data/test.sh
Copy模块

功能:从ansible服务器主控端复制文件到远程主机

#如目标存在,默认覆盖,此处指定先备份
ansible websrvs -m copy -a “src=/root/test1.sh dest=/tmp/test2.sh    owner=wang  mode=600 backup=yes” 
#指定内容,直接生成目标文件    
ansible websrvs -m copy -a "content='test line1\ntest line2' dest=/tmp/test.txt"
#复制/etc/下的文件,不包括/etc/目录自身
ansible websrvs -m copy -a “src=/etc/ dest=/backup”
Fetch模块

功能:从远程主机提取文件至ansible的主控端,copy相反,目前不支持目录

范例:

ansible websrvs -m fetch -a ‘src=/root/test.sh dest=/data/scripts’ 

范例:

[root@ansible ~]#ansible   all -m  fetch -a 'src=/etc/redhat-release dest=/data/os'
[root@ansible ~]#tree /data/os/
/data/os/
├── 10.0.0.6
│   └── etc
│       └── redhat-release
├── 10.0.0.7
│   └── etc
│       └── redhat-release
└── 10.0.0.8
    └── etc
        └── redhat-release

6 directories, 3 files
File模块

功能:设置文件属性

范例:

#创建空文件
ansible all -m  file  -a 'path=/data/test.txt state=touch'
ansible all -m  file  -a 'path=/data/test.txt state=absent'
ansible all -m file -a "path=/root/test.sh owner=wang mode=755“
#创建目录
ansible all -m file -a "path=/data/mysql state=directory owner=mysql group=mysql"
#创建软链接
ansible all -m file -a ‘src=/data/testfile  dest=/data/testfile-link state=link’
unarchive模块

功能:解包解压缩

实现有两种用法:
1、将ansible主机上的压缩包传到远程主机后解压缩至特定目录,设置copy=yes
2、将远程主机上的某个压缩包解压缩到指定路径下,设置copy=no

常见参数:

  • copy:默认为yes,当copy=yes,拷贝的文件是从ansible主机复制到远程主机上,如果设置为copy=no,会在远程主机上寻找src源文件
  • remote_src:和copy功能一样且互斥,yes表示在远程主机,不在ansible主机,no表示文件在ansible主机上
  • src:源路径,可以是ansible主机上的路径,也可以是远程主机上的路径,如果是远程主机上的路径,则需要设置copy=no
  • dest:远程主机上的目标路径
  • mode:设置解压缩后的文件权限

范例:

ansible all -m unarchive -a 'src=/data/foo.tgz dest=/var/lib/foo'
ansible all -m unarchive -a 'src=/tmp/foo.zip dest=/data copy=no mode=0777'
ansible all -m unarchive -a 'src=https://example.com/example.zip dest=/data copy=no'
Archive模块

功能:打包压缩

范例:

ansible websrvs -m archive  -a 'path=/var/log/ dest=/data/log.tar.bz2 format=bz2  owner=wang mode=0600'
3.4.9 Hostname模块

功能:管理主机名

范例:

ansible node1 -m hostname -a “name=websrv” 
ansible 192.168.100.18 -m hostname -a 'name=node18.magedu.com'
Cron模块

功能:计划任务
支持时间:minute,hour,day,month,weekday

范例:

#备份数据库脚本
[root@centos8 ~]#cat mysql_backup.sh 
mysqldump -A -F --single-transaction --master-data=2 -q -uroot |gzip > /data/mysql_date +%F_%T.sql.gz
#创建任务
ansible 10.0.0.8 -m cron -a 'hour=2 minute=30 weekday=1-5 name="backup mysql" job=/root/mysql_backup.sh'
ansible websrvs   -m cron -a "minute=*/5 job='/usr/sbin/ntpdate 172.20.0.1 &>/dev/null' name=Synctime"
#禁用计划任务
ansible websrvs   -m cron -a "minute=*/5 job='/usr/sbin/ntpdate 172.20.0.1 &>/dev/null' name=Synctime disabled=yes"
#启用计划任务
ansible websrvs   -m cron -a "minute=*/5 job='/usr/sbin/ntpdate 172.20.0.1 &>/dev/null' name=Synctime disabled=no"
#删除任务
ansible websrvs -m cron -a "name='backup mysql' state=absent"
ansible websrvs -m cron -a 'state=absent name=Synctime'
Yum模块

功能:管理软件包,只支持RHEL,CentOS,fedora,不支持Ubuntu其它版本

范例:

ansible websrvs -m yum -a ‘name=httpd state=present’  #安装
ansible websrvs -m yum -a ‘name=httpd state=absent’  #删除
Service模块

功能:管理服务

范例:

ansible all -m service -a 'name=httpd state=started enabled=yes'
ansible all -m service -a 'name=httpd state=stopped'
ansible all -m service -a 'name=httpd state=reloaded’
ansible all -m shell -a "sed -i 's/^Listen 80/Listen 8080/' /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf"
ansible all -m service -a 'name=httpd state=restarted' 
User模块

功能:管理用户

范例:

#创建用户
ansible all -m user -a 'name=user1 comment=“test user” uid=2048 home=/app/user1 group=root'

ansible all -m user -a 'name=nginx comment=nginx uid=88 group=nginx groups="root,daemon" shell=/sbin/nologin system=yes create_home=no  home=/data/nginx non_unique=yes'

#删除用户及家目录等数据
ansible all -m user -a 'name=nginx state=absent remove=yes'
Group模块

功能:管理组

范例:

#创建组
ansible websrvs -m group  -a 'name=nginx gid=88 system=yes'
#删除组
ansible websrvs -m group  -a 'name=nginx state=absent'
Lineinfile模块

ansible在使用sed进行替换时,经常会遇到需要转义的问题,而且ansible在遇到特殊符号进行替换时,存在问题,无法正常进行替换 。其实在ansible自身提供了两个模块:lineinfile模块和replace模块,可以方便的进行替换

功能:相当于sed,可以修改文件内容

范例:

ansible all -m   lineinfile -a "path=/etc/selinux/config regexp='^SELINUX=' line='SELINUX=enforcing'"
ansible all -m lineinfile  -a 'dest=/etc/fstab state=absent regexp="^#"'
Replace模块

该模块有点类似于sed命令,主要也是基于正则进行匹配和替换

范例:

ansible all -m replace -a "path=/etc/fstab regexp='^(UUID.*)' replace='#\1'"  
ansible all -m replace -a "path=/etc/fstab regexp='^#(.*)' replace='\1'"
Setup模块

功能: setup 模块来收集主机的系统信息,这些 facts 信息可以直接以变量的形式使用,但是如果主机较多,会影响执行速度,可以使用gather_facts: no 来禁止 Ansible 收集 facts 信息

范例:

ansible all -m setup
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_nodename"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_hostname"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_domain"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_memtotal_mb"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_memory_mb"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_memfree_mb"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_os_family"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_distribution_major_version"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_distribution_version"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_processor_vcpus"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_all_ipv4_addresses"
ansible all -m setup -a "filter=ansible_architecture"
ansible all -m  setup  -a "filter=ansible_processor*"

范例:

[root@ansible ~]#ansible all  -m  setup -a 'filter=ansible_python_version'
10.0.0.7 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_python_version": "2.7.5",
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    },
    "changed": false
}
10.0.0.6 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_python_version": "2.6.6",
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    },
    "changed": false
}
10.0.0.8 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_python_version": "3.6.8",
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python"
    },
    "changed": false
}
[root@ansible ~]#

本文链接:http://www.yunweipai.com/34676.html

Ansible相关工具介绍,实例演示

Ansible-Playbook详解

网友评论comments

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。

暂无评论

Copyright © 2012-2021 YUNWEIPAI.COM - 运维派 京ICP备16064699号-6
扫二维码
扫二维码
返回顶部