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利用cobbler实现自动化安装

Cobbler简介

Cobbler是一款Linux生态的自动化运维工具,基于Python2开发,用于自动化批量部署安装操作系
统;其提供基于CLI的管理方式和WEB配置界面,其中WEB配置界面是基于Python2和Django框架开
发。另外,cobbler还提供了API,方便二次开发。Cobbler属于C/S模型(客户端/服务器模型)

Cobbler主要用于快速网络安装linux操作系统,支持众多的Linux发行版如:Red Hat、Fedora、CentOS、Debian、Ubuntu和SuSE等,甚至支持windows的安装

Cobbler实质是PXE的二次封装,将多种安装参数封装到一起,并提供统一的管理方法

Cobbler的相关服务

使用Cobbler安装系统需要一台专门提供各种服务的服务器,提供的服务包括(HTTP/FTP/NFS,
TFTP,DHCP),也可以将这几个服务分别部署到不同服务器。事实上在实际应用中,总是将不同的服务分别
部署到专门的服务器。

Cobbler是在HTTP、TFTP、DHCP等各种服务的基础上进行相关操作的,实际安装的大体过程类似于基
于PXE的网络安装:客户端(裸机)开机使用网卡引导启动,其请求DHCP分配一个地址后从TFTP服务器获取
启动文件,加载到客户端本地内存中运行,并显示出可安装的系统列表;在人为的选定安装的操作系统类
型后,客服端会到HTTP服务器下载相应的系统安装文件并执行自动安装

Cobbler的工作原理

利用cobbler实现自动化安装插图

  • client裸机配置了从网络启动后,开机后会广播包请求DHCP服务器(cobbler server)发送其分配好的一个IP
  • DHCP服务器(cobbler server)收到请求后发送responese,包括其ip地址
  • client裸机拿到ip后再向cobbler server发送请求OS引导文件的请求
  • cobbler server告诉裸机OS引导文件的名字和TFTP server的ip和port
  • client裸机通过上面告知的TFTP server地址通信,下载引导文件
  • client裸机执行执行该引导文件,确定加载信息,选择要安装的os,期间会再向cobbler server请求kickstart文件和os image
  • cobbler server发送请求的kickstart和os iamge
  • client裸机加载kickstart文件
  • client裸机接收os image,安装该os image

安装Cobbler及其相关的服务和组件

Cobbler所依赖的服务包括HTTPD,TFTP,DHCP等,如果有web界面要求,还需要安装相关的组件

CentOS 8目前还没有提供Cobbler相关包

[root@centos7 ~]#yum install dhcp cobbler cobbler-web pykickstart 
[root@centos7 ~]#systemctl enable --now cobbler httpd tftp dhcpd 

相关包说明:

  • httpd:提供yum源,并配合cobbler-web使得cobbler可以通过web网页界面进行配置管理
  • tftp-server:提供启动和菜单等相关文件网络下载功能
  • cobbler-web : 提供基于web的cobbler管理界面
  • pykickstart.noarch : 基于python的管理kickstart文件的库

说明:

  • Cobbler依赖于epel源,在安装cobbler之前需要配置epel源
  • 在安装cobbler时会自因为依赖而安装httpd,tftp-server相关包

Cobbler配置文件及各目录情况

配置文件
/etc/cobbler/settings  #cobbler 主配置文件 
/etc/cobbler/iso/  #iso模板配置文件
/etc/cobbler/pxe   #pxe模板文件
/etc/cobbler/power  #电源配置文件 
/etc/cobbler/user.conf   #web服务授权配置文件 
/etc/cobbler/users.digest  #web访问的用户名密码配置文件 
/etc/cobbler/dhcp.template #dhcp服务器的的配置模板
/etc/cobbler/dnsmasq.template #dns服务器的配置模板
/etc/cobbler/tftpd.template  #tftp服务的配置模板
/etc/cobbler/modules.conf #cobbler模块的配置文件
数据目录
/var/lib/cobbler/config/     #用于存放distros,system,profiles 等信息的配置文件
/var/lib/cobbler/triggers/   #用于存放用户定义的cobbler命令
/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/  # 默认存放kickstart文件
/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/     #存放各种引导程序
镜像目录
/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/    #导入的发行版系统的所有数据
/var/www/cobbler/images/       #导入发行版kernel和initrd镜像用于远程网络启动
/var/www/cobbler/repo_mirror/   #yum 仓库存储目录
日志目录
/var/log/cobbler/installing  #客户端安装日志 
/var/log/cobbler/cobbler.log #cobbler日志

配置及启动cobblerd服务

检测cobbler的运行环境,并根据提示逐步配置cobbler

cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : The 'server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than localhost, or kickstarting features will not work.  This should be a resolvable hostname or IP for the boot server as reachable by all machines that will use it.
2 : For PXE to be functional, the 'next_server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than 127.0.0.1, and should match the IP of the boot server on the PXE network.
3 : change 'disable' to 'no' in /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
4 : Some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run 'cobbler get-loaders' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The 'cobbler get-loaders' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.
5 : enable and start rsyncd.service with systemctl
6 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories
7 : ksvalidator was not found, install pykickstart
8 : The default password used by the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_crypted in /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to 'cobbler' and should be changed, try: "openssl passwd -1 -salt 'random-phrase-here' 'your-password-here'" to generate new one
9 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them

Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.

1.更改/etc/xinetd.d/tftp配置文件
vim /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
disable  =  yes  -->  disable  =  no
systemctl restart xinetd
2.联网下载boot引导程序文件
cobbler get-loaders
3.没有网络情况下拷贝启动文件到TFTP服务文件夹
cp -a /usr/share/syslinux/{pxelinux.0,menu.c32}  /var/lib/tftpboot
4.更改/etc/cobbler/settings配置文件的server项为提供cobblerd服务的主机地址,也就是本机地址
sed -nri 's#server:127.0.0.1#server:192.168.100.100#' /etc/cobbler/settings
更改后的整行内容:server:192.168.100.100
5.更改/etc/cobbler/settings配置文件的next_server项,指明tftp服务器地址,使得客户端能够找
到TFTP服务器
sed -i 's/next_server: 127.0.0.1/next_server: 192.168.100.100/' /etc/cobbler/settings
更改后的整行内容:next_server:192.168.100.100
6.配置相应的选项来使用cobbler管理dhcp服务和tftp服务
manage_dhcp:1
manage_tftpd:1
7.pxe_just_once选项,该选项置1表示在pxe安装块结束时在cobbler系统中做相应的记录,这样会避免如果客户机的BIOS选项中PXE启动处于第一位导致的循环重启;如果第一个启动硬件不是PXE启动那就置0。
pxe_just_once:1  

配置完成后重启
systemctl restart cobblerd

cobbler命令用法

[root@centos7 ~]#cobbler
usage
=====
cobbler <distro|profile|system|repo|image|mgmtclass|package|file> ...
        [add|edit|copy|getks*|list|remove|rename|report] [options|--help]

cobbler <aclsetup|buildiso|import|list|replicate|report|reposync|sync|validateks|version|signature|get-loaders|hardlink> [options|--help]

可以使用下面的方式得到使用帮助

[root@centos7 ~]#cobbler distro --help
usage
=====
cobbler distro add
cobbler distro copy
cobbler distro edit
cobbler distro find
cobbler distro list
cobbler distro remove
cobbler distro rename
cobbler distro report
[root@old_centos7 ~]#cobbler distro add --help
Usage: cobbler [options]

Options:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --name=NAME           Name (Ex: Fedora-11-i386)
  --ctime=CTIME
  --mtime=MTIME
  --uid=UID       Owners (Owners list for authz_ownership (space delimited))
...省略...

常见用法:

#列出当前导入的linux发行版条目
cobbler distro list 
#报告当前所有的linux发行版详细信息
cobbler distro report 

#导入系统源文件生成仓库
cobbler import --name=centos-8.0-x86_64 --path=/mnt --arch=x86_64

#将linux发行版系统镜像与其对应的ks文件建立关联
cobbler profile --name=centos7 --distro=centos7-x86_64 --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks7.cfg 

将linux发行版导入到cobbler在httpd服务的文件夹下

cobbler将系统yum源文件存放在 /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror目录下

cobbler import --name=centos6 --path=/var/www/html/centos/6/isos/x86_64/ --arch=x86_64
cobbler import --name=centos7 --path=/var/www/html/centos/7/isos/x86_64/ --arch=x86_64
cobbler import --name=centos8 --path=/var/www/html/centos/8/isos/x86_64/ --arch=x86_64

导入后重启并同步

systemctl restart cobblerd
cobbler sync

范例:

[root@centos7 ~]#du -sh /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/*
11G /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos-7.7-x86_64
7.2G    /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos-8.1-x86_64
12K /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/config

配置linux发行版和关联相应的ks文件

拷贝事先准备好的ks文件至/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts目录下

[root@centos7 ~]#cp /var/www/html/ks/centos{6,7,8}.ks /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts

将linux发行版系统镜像与其对应的ks文件建立关联

cobbler profile --name=centos6 --distro=centos6-x86_64 --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/centos6.cfg 
cobbler profile --name=centos7 --distro=centos7-x86_64 --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/centos7.cfg 
cobbler profile --name=centos8 --distro=centos8-x86_64 --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/centos8.cfg

注意,在导入distro时,cobbler会自动生成distro条目,这些并未和ks文件关联,可以使用

cobbler profile remove --name=PROFILE_NAME

删除后,再关联ks文件。

建立关联后重启并同步

systemctl restart cobblerd
cobbler sync

查看详细信息

cobbler report

范例:

[root@centos7 ~]#cobbler report
distros:
==========
Name                           : centos7-x86_64
Architecture                   : x86_64
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Breed                          : redhat
Comment                        : 
Fetchable Files                : {}
Initrd                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img
Kernel                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz
Kernel Options                 : {}
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart Metadata             : {'tree': 'http://@@http_server@@/cblr/links/centos7-x86_64'}
Management Classes             : []
OS Version                     : rhel7
Owners                         : ['admin']
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}

Name                           : centos8-x86_64
Architecture                   : x86_64
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Breed                          : redhat
Comment                        : 
Fetchable Files                : {}
Initrd                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos8-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img
Kernel                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos8-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz
Kernel Options                 : {}
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart Metadata             : {'tree': 'http://@@http_server@@/cblr/links/centos8-x86_64'}
Management Classes             : []
OS Version                     : rhel8
Owners                         : ['admin']
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}

Name                           : centos6-x86_64
Architecture                   : x86_64
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Breed                          : redhat
Comment                        : 
Fetchable Files                : {}
Initrd                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos6-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img
Kernel                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos6-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz
Kernel Options                 : {}
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart Metadata             : {'tree': 'http://@@http_server@@/cblr/links/centos6-x86_64'}
Management Classes             : []
OS Version                     : rhel6
Owners                         : ['admin']
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}

profiles:
Owners                         : ['admin']
Parent Profile                 : 
Internal proxy                 : 
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Repos                          : []
Server Override                : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}
Virt Auto Boot                 : 1
Virt Bridge                    : xenbr0
Virt CPUs                      : 1
Virt Disk Driver Type          : raw
Virt File Size(GB)             : 5
Virt Path                      : 
Virt RAM (MB)                  : 512
Virt Type                      : xenpv

Name                           : Install_centos6
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Comment                        : 
DHCP Tag                       : default
Distribution                   : centos6-x86_64
Enable gPXE?                   : 0
Enable PXE Menu?               : 1
Fetchable Files                : {}
Kernel Options                 : {}
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart                      : /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks6.cfg
Kickstart Metadata             : {}
Management Classes             : []
Management Parameters          : <<inherit>>
Name Servers                   : []
Name Servers Search Path       : []
Owners                         : ['admin']
Parent Profile                 : 
Internal proxy                 : 
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Repos                          : []
Server Override                : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}
Virt Auto Boot                 : 1
Virt Bridge                    : xenbr0
Virt CPUs                      : 1
Virt Disk Driver Type          : raw
Virt File Size(GB)             : 5
Virt Path                      : 
Virt RAM (MB)                  : 512
Virt Type                      : xenpv

systems:
==========

repos:
==========

images:
==========

mgmtclasses:
==========

packages:
==========

files:
==========

上面信息中有一行如下:

Kickstart Metadata             : {'tree': 'http://@@http_server@@/cblr/links/centos8-x86_64'}

该行的定义在文件 /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/config/centos8-x86_64.repo中

是cobbler自己定义安装源路径的特有语法规定的,因此可以在ks文件中指定安装
源时直接指定为$tree变量。

url --url=$tree

范例:

[root@centos7 ~]#vim /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/config/centos8-x86_64.repo
[core-0]
name=core-0
baseurl=http://@@http_server@@/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos8-x86_64/AppStream
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
priority=$yum_distro_priority

启动菜单优化

修改/etc/cobbler/pxe/pxedefault.template模板文件,重启同步

[root@centos7 ~]#vim /etc/cobbler/pxe/pxedefault.template
DEFAULT menu
PROMPT 0
MENU TITLE Welcome! | www.wangxiaochun.com      # 自定义项
TIMEOUT 200 
TOTALTIMEOUT 6000
ONTIMEOUT pxe_timeout_profile

LABEL local
        MENU LABEL (local installation) # 自定义项1
        MENU DEFAULT
        LOCALBOOT -1pxe_menu_items

MENU end
[root@centos7 ~]#systemctl restart cobblerd
[root@centos7 ~]#cobbler sync

重启同步后cobbler更新文件/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default

[root@centos7 ~]#vim /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
DEFAULT menu
PROMPT 0
MENU TITLE Welcome! | www.wangxiaochun.com
TIMEOUT 200 
TOTALTIMEOUT 6000
ONTIMEOUT local

LABEL local
        MENU LABEL (local installation)
        MENU DEFAULT
        LOCALBOOT -1
LABEL Install_centos6
        kernel /images/centos6-x86_64/vmlinuz
        MENU LABEL Install_centos6
        append initrd=/images/centos6-x86_64/initrd.img ksdevice=bootif lang=  kssendmac text  ks=http://192.168.100.100/cblr/svc/op/ks/profile/Install_centos6
        ipappend 2

LABEL Install_centos7
        kernel /images/centos7-x86_64/vmlinuz
        MENU LABEL Install_centos7
        append initrd=/images/centos7-x86_64/initrd.img ksdevice=bootif lang=  kssendmac text  ks=http://192.168.100.100/cblr/svc/op/ks/profile/Install_centos7
        ipappend 2

LABEL Install_centos8
        kernel /images/centos8-x86_64/vmlinuz
        MENU LABEL Install_centos8
        append initrd=/images/centos8-x86_64/initrd.img ksdevice=bootif lang=  kssendmac text  ks=http://192.168.100.100/cblr/svc/op/ks/profile/Install_centos8
        ipappend 2
MENU end 

基于web界面来管理配置cobbler

安装cobbler-web
yum install cobbler-web`
systemctl restart httpd
访问web界面

用浏览器访问:https://cobblerserver/cobbler_web

cobbler-web界面的默认账号,用户名:cobbler 密码:cobbler

cobbler访问图示

在这里插入图片描述
默认账户密码都是:cobbler
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述

WEB的登录认证方式

认证方法配置文件:/etc/cobbler/modules.conf
支持多种认证方法:

  • authn_configfile,此为默认的认证方法
  • authn_pam

使用authn_configfile模块认证cobbler_web用户

vim /etc/cobbler/modules.conf 
[authentication]
module=authn_configfile

创建其认证文件/etc/cobbler/users.digest,并添加所需的用户

htdigest -c /etc/cobbler/users.digest Cobbler admin 

使用已有用户文件,在其中添加新用户

htdigest  /etc/cobbler/users.digest Cobbler admin2 

注意:

  • 使用“-c”选项用于创建用户文件,如果文件已存在,将覆盖原文件
  • cobbler_web的realm只能为Cobbler

使用authn_pam模块认证cobbler_web用户

vim /etc/cobbler/modules.conf
[authentication] 
module = authn_pam

systemctl restart cobblerd

创建cobbler用户:

useradd -s /sbin/nologin cobbleruser
echo magedu | passwd --stdin cobbleruser 
vim  /etc/cobbler/users.conf 
[admins]
admin = "cobbleruser"

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利用 PXE 实现自动化系统部署

故障排查Trouble Shooting

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