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Ansible-roles角色详解

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实战案例

案例1:实现 httpd 角色
#创建角色相关的目录
mkdir -pv /data/ansible/roles/httpd/{tasks,handlers,files}

#创建角色相关的文件
cd /data/ansible/roles/httpd/

vim tasks/main.yml
- include: group.yml
- include: user.yml
- include: install.yml
- include: config.yml
- include: index.yml
- include: service.yml

vim  tasks/user.yml
- name: create apache user
  user: name=apache system=yes shell=/sbin/nologin home=/var/www/ uid=80 group=apache

vim  tasks/group.yml
- name: create apache group
  group: name=apache system=yes gid=80

vim tasks/install.yml
- name: install httpd package
  yum: name=httpd

vim tasks/config.yml
- name: config file
  copy: src=httpd.conf dest=/etc/httpd/conf/ backup=yes
  notify: restart

vim tasks/index.yml
- name: index.html
  copy: src=index.html dest=/var/www/html/

vim tasks/service.yml
- name: start service
  service: name=httpd state=started enabled=yes

vim handlers/main.yml
- name: restart
  service: name=httpd state=restarted

#在files目录下准备两个文件
ls files/
httpd.conf index.html

tree /data/ansible/roles/httpd/
/data/ansible/roles/httpd/
├── files
│   ├── httpd.conf
│   └── index.html
├── handlers
│   └── main.yml
└── tasks
    ├── config.yml
    ├── group.yml
    ├── index.yml
    ├── install.yml
    ├── main.yml
    ├── service.yml
    └── user.yml

3 directories, 10 files

#在playbook中调用角色
vim  /data/ansible/role_httpd.yml
---
# httpd role
- hosts: websrvs
  remote_user: root

  roles:
    - httpd

#运行playbook
ansible-playbook  /data/ansible/role_httpd.yml
案例2:实现 nginx 角色
mkdir -pv  /data/ansible/roles/nginx/{tasks,handlers,templates,vars}

#创建task文件
cd /data/ansible/roles/nginx/

vim tasks/main.yml 
- include: install.yml
- include: config.yml
- include: index.yml
- include: service.yml

vim  tasks/install.yml 
- name: install
  yum: name=nginx 

vim tasks/config.yml 
- name: config file for centos7
  template: src=nginx7.conf.j2 dest=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  when: ansible_distribution_major_version=="7"
  notify: restart
- name: config file for centos8
  template: src=nginx8.conf.j2 dest=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
  when: ansible_distribution_major_version=="8"
  notify: restart

vim  tasks/index.yml 
- name: index.html
  copy: src=roles/httpd/files/index.html dest=/usr/share/nginx/html/

vim tasks/service.yml 
- name: start service
  service: name=nginx state=started enabled=yes

#创建handler文件
cat handlers/main.yml 
- name: restart
  service: name=nginx state=restarted

#创建两个template文件
cat templates/nginx7.conf.j2
...省略...
user {{user}};
worker_processes {{ansible_processor_vcpus+3}};   #修改此行
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
...省略...

cat templates/nginx8.conf.j2
...省略...
user nginx;
worker_processes {{ansible_processor_vcpus**3}};  #修改此行
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
...省略...

#创建变量文件
vim vars/main.yml 
user: daemon

#目录结构如下

tree /data/ansible/roles/nginx/
/data/ansible/roles/nginx/
├── handlers
│   └── main.yml
├── tasks
│   ├── config.yml
│   ├── file.yml
│   ├── install.yml
│   ├── main.yml
│   └── service.yml
├── templates
│   ├── nginx7.conf.j2
│   └── nginx8.conf.j2
└── vars
    └── main.yml

4 directories, 9 files

#在playbook中调用角色
vim /data/ansible/role_nginx.yml 
---
#nginx role 
- hosts: websrvs

  roles:
    - role: nginx

#运行playbook
ansible-playbook  /data/ansible/role_nginx.yml
案例3:实现 memcached 角色
mkdir -pv  /data/ansible/roles/memcached/{tasks,templates}

cd /data/ansible/roles/memcached
vim tasks/main.yml 
- include: install.yml
- include: config.yml
- include: service.yml

vim tasks/install.yml 
- name: install
  yum: name=memcached

vim tasks/config.yml 
- name: config file
  template: src=memcached.j2  dest=/etc/sysconfig/memcached

vim tasks/service.yml 
- name: service
  service: name=memcached state=started enabled=yes

vim templates/memcached.j2 
PORT="11211"
USER="memcached"
MAXCONN="1024"
CACHESIZE="{{ansible_memtotal_mb//4}}"
OPTIONS=""

tree /data/ansible/roles/memcached/
/data/ansible/roles/memcached/
├── tasks
│   ├── config.yml
│   ├── install.yml
│   ├── main.yml
│   └── service.yml
└── templates
    └── memcached.j2

2 directories, 5 files

vim /data/ansible/role_memcached.yml 
---
- hosts: appsrvs

  roles:
    - role: memcached

ansible-play /data/ansible/role_memcached.yml 
案例4:实现 mysql 5.6 的角色
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/files/my.cnf 
[mysqld]
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
user=mysql
symbolic-links=0
datadir=/data/mysql
innodb_file_per_table=1
log-bin
pid-file=/data/mysql/mysqld.pid

[client]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log

[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/files/secure_mysql.sh 
#!/bin/bash
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_secure_installation <<EOF

y
magedu
magedu
y
y
y
y
EOF

[root@ansible ~]#chmod +x  /data/ansible/roles/mysql/files/secure_mysql.sh

[root@ansible ~]#ls /data/ansible/roles/mysql/files/
my.cnf  mysql-5.6.46-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz  secure_mysql.sh

[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/main.yml
- include: install.yml
- include: group.yml
- include: user.yml
- include: unarchive.yml
- include: link.yml
- include: data.yml
- include: config.yml
- include: service.yml
- include: path.yml
- include: secure.yml

[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/install.yml 
- name: install packages                                            
  yum: name=libaio,perl-Data-Dumper,perl-Getopt-Long
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/group.yml 
- name: create mysql group
  group: name=mysql gid=306
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/user.yml 
- name: create mysql user
  user: name=mysql uid=306 group=mysql shell=/sbin/nologin system=yes create_home=no home=/data/mysql
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/unarchive.yml 
- name: copy tar to remote host and file mode 
  unarchive: src=mysql-5.6.46-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz dest=/usr/local/ owner=root group=root
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/link.yml 
- name: mkdir /usr/local/mysql 
  file: src=/usr/local/mysql-5.6.46-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 dest=/usr/local/mysql state=link
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/data.yml 
- name: data dir
  shell: chdir=/usr/local/mysql/  ./scripts/mysql_install_db --datadir=/data/mysql --user=mysql
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/config.yml 
- name: config my.cnf
  copy: src=my.cnf  dest=/etc/my.cnf 
[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/service.yml 
- name: service script
  shell: /bin/cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld;chkconfig --add mysqld;chkconfig mysqld on;/etc/init.d/mysqld start

[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/path.yml 
- name: PATH variable
  copy: content='PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH' dest=/etc/profile.d/mysql.sh  

[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/roles/mysql/tasks/secure.yml 
- name: secure script
  script: secure_mysql.sh

[root@ansible ~]#tree /data/ansible/roles/mysql/
/data/ansible/roles/mysql/
├── files
│   ├── my.cnf
│   ├── mysql-5.6.46-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz
│   └── secure_mysql.sh
└── tasks
    ├── config.yml
    ├── data.yml
    ├── group.yml
    ├── install.yml
    ├── link.yml
    ├── main.yml
    ├── path.yml
    ├── secure.yml
    ├── service.yml
    ├── unarchive.yml
    └── user.yml

2 directories, 14 files

[root@ansible ~]#cat /data/ansible/mysql_roles.yml
- hosts: dbsrvs
  remote_user: root

  roles:
    - {role: mysql,tags: ["mysql","db"]}
    - {role: nginx,tage: ["nginx","web"]}

[root@ansible ~]#ansible-playbook -t mysql /data/ansible/mysql_roles.yml
案例5 :实现多角色的选择
vim /data/ansible/role_httpd_nginx.yml 
---
- hosts: websrvs

  roles:
    - {role: httpd,tags: [httpd,web], when: ansible_distribution_major_version=="7" }
    - {role: nginx,tags: [nginx,web], when: ansible_distribution_major_version=="8" }

ansible-playbook -t nginx /data/ansible/role_httpd_nginx.yml 

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Ansible-roles角色详解

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