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高级功能及配置

介绍HAProxy高级配置及实用案例

基于cookie的会话保持

cookie value:为当前server指定cookie值,实现基于cookie的会话黏性,相对于基于 source 地址 hash 调度算法对客户端的粒度更精准,但同时也加大了haproxy负载,目前此模式使用较少, 已经被session共享服务器代替

注意:不支持 tcp mode,使用 http mode

配置选项

cookie name  [ rewrite | insert | prefix ][ indirect ] [ nocache ][ postonly ] [ preserve ][ httponly ] [ secure ][ domain ]* [ maxidle <idle> ][ maxlife ]

name:       #cookie 的key名称,用于实现持久连接
insert:     #插入新的cookie,默认不插入cookie
indirect:   #如果客户端已经有cookie,则不会再发送cookie信息
nocache:    #当client和hapoxy之间有缓存服务器(如:CDN)时,不允许中间缓存器缓存cookie,因为这会导致很多经过同一个CDN的请求都发送到同一台后端服务器

配置示例

listen  web_port
 bind 10.0.0.7:80
 balance  roundrobin
 mode http                              #不支持 tcp mode
 log global
 cookie WEBSRV insert nocache indirect
 server web1  10.0.0.17:80 check inter 3000 fall 2 rise 5  cookie web1 
 server web2  10.0.0.27:80 check inter 3000 fall 2 rise 5  cookie web2

验证cookie信息

浏览器验证:

haproxy-基于cookie的会话保持插图
haproxy-基于cookie的会话保持插图(1)

通过命令行验证:

[root@centos6 ~]#curl -i 10.0.0.7
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
date: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 02:26:08 GMT
server: Apache/2.4.6 (CentOS)
last-modified: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 01:44:28 GMT
etag: "a-5a244f0fd5175"
accept-ranges: bytes
content-length: 10
content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
set-cookie: WEBSRV=web2; path=/
cache-control: private

10.0.0.27
[root@centos6 ~]#curl -i 10.0.0.7
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
date: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 02:26:15 GMT
server: Apache/2.4.6 (CentOS)
last-modified: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 01:44:13 GMT
etag: "a-5a244f01f8adc"
accept-ranges: bytes
content-length: 10
content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
set-cookie: WEBSRV=web1; path=/
cache-control: private

10.0.0.17

[root@centos6 ~]#curl -b  WEBSRV=web1 10.0.0.7
10.0.0.17
[root@centos6 ~]#curl -b  WEBSRV=web2 10.0.0.7
10.0.0.27

[root@centos6 ~]#curl -vb  WEBSRV=web1 10.0.0.7
* About to connect() to 10.0.0.7 port 80 (#0)
*   Trying 10.0.0.7... connected
* Connected to 10.0.0.7 (10.0.0.7) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.19.7 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.19.7 NSS/3.27.1 zlib/1.2.3 libidn/1.18 libssh2/1.4.2
> Host: 10.0.0.7
> Accept: */*
> Cookie: WEBSRV=web1
> 
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< date: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 02:27:54 GMT
< server: Apache/2.4.6 (CentOS)
< last-modified: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 01:44:13 GMT
< etag: "a-5a244f01f8adc"
< accept-ranges: bytes
< content-length: 10
< content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
< 
10.0.0.17
* Connection #0 to host 10.0.0.7 left intact
* Closing connection #0
[root@centos6 ~]#curl -vb  WEBSRV=web2 10.0.0.7
* About to connect() to 10.0.0.7 port 80 (#0)
*   Trying 10.0.0.7... connected
* Connected to 10.0.0.7 (10.0.0.7) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.19.7 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.19.7 NSS/3.27.1 zlib/1.2.3 libidn/1.18 libssh2/1.4.2
> Host: 10.0.0.7
> Accept: */*
> Cookie: WEBSRV=web2
> 
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< date: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 02:27:57 GMT
< server: Apache/2.4.6 (CentOS)
< last-modified: Thu, 02 Apr 2020 01:44:28 GMT
< etag: "a-5a244f0fd5175"
< accept-ranges: bytes
< content-length: 10
< content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
< 
10.0.0.27
* Connection #0 to host 10.0.0.7 left intact
* Closing connection #0

HAProxy状态页

通过web界面,显示当前HAProxy的运行状态

官方帮助:

http://cbonte.github.io/haproxy-dconv/2.1/configuration.html#4-stats%20admin

状态页配置项

stats enable                #基于默认的参数启用stats page
stats hide-version          #将状态页中haproxy版本隐藏
stats refresh <delay>         #设定自动刷新时间间隔,默认不自动刷新
stats uri <prefix>        #自定义stats page uri,默认值:/haproxy?stats 
stats realm <realm>       #账户认证时的提示信息,示例:stats realm   HAProxy\ Statistics
stats auth <user>:<passwd>  #认证时的账号和密码,可使用多次,默认:no authentication,可有多行用户
stats admin { if | unless } <cond> #启用stats page中的管理功能

启用状态页

listen stats
  bind :9999
  stats enable
  #stats hide-version 
  stats uri  /haproxy-status
  stats realm HAPorxy\ Stats\ Page
  stats auth haadmin:123456             #两个用户
  stats auth admin:123456
  #stats refresh 30s
  stats admin if TRUE                   #安全原因,不建议打开

登录状态页

pid = 27134 (process #1, nbproc = 1, nbthread = 1) #pid为当前pid号,process为当前进程号,nbproc和nbthread为一共多少进程和每个进程多少个线程
uptime = 0d 0h00m04s #启动了多长时间
system limits: memmax = unlimited; ulimit-n = 200029 #系统资源限制:内存/最大打开文件数/
maxsock = 200029; maxconn = 100000; maxpipes = 0 #最大socket连接数/单进程最大连接数/最大管道数maxpipes
current conns = 2; current pipes = 0/0; conn rate = 2/sec; bit rate = 0.000 kbps #当前连接数/当前管道数/当前连接速率
Running tasks: 1/14; idle = 100 %        #运行的任务/当前空闲率
active UP:                              #在线服务器
backup UP:                              #标记为backup的服务器
active UP, going down:                  #监测未通过正在进入down过程
backup UP, going down:                  #备份服务器正在进入down过程
active DOWN, going up:                  #down的服务器正在进入up过程
backup DOWN, going up:                  #备份服务器正在进入up过程
active or backup DOWN:                  #在线的服务器或者是backup的服务器已经转换成了down状态
not checked:                            #标记为不监测的服务器
active or backup DOWN for maintenance (MAINT) #active或者backup服务器人为下线的
active or backup SOFT STOPPED for maintenance #active或者backup被人为软下线(人为将weight改成0)

haproxy-基于cookie的会话保持插图(2)

backend server信息

session rate(每秒的连接会话信息): Errors(错误统计信息):
cur:每秒的当前会话数量 Req:错误请求量
max:每秒新的最大会话数量 conn:错误链接量
limit:每秒新的会话限制量 Resp:错误响应量
sessions(会话信息): Warnings(警告统计信息):
cur:当前会话量 Retr:重新尝试次数
max:最大会话量 Redis:再次发送次数
limit: 限制会话量
Total:总共会话量 Server(real server信息):
LBTot:选中一台服务器所用的总时间 Status:后端机的状态,包括UP和DOWN
Last:和服务器的持续连接时间 LastChk:持续检查后端服务器的时间
Wght:权重
Bytes(流量统计): Act:活动链接数量
In:网络的字节输入总量 Bck:备份的服务器数量
Out:网络的字节输出总量 Chk:心跳检测时间
Dwn:后端服务器连接后都是DOWN的数量
Denied(拒绝统计信息): Dwntme:总的downtime时间
Req:拒绝请求量 Thrtle:server 状态
Resp:拒绝回复量

利用状态页实现haproxy服务器的健康性检查

范例:通过curl 命令对haproxy的状态页的访问实现健康检查

[root@centos8 ~]#curl -I  http://haadmin:123456@10.0.0.100:9999/haproxy-status
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
cache-control: no-cache
content-type: text/html

[root@centos8 ~]#curl -I -u haadmin:123456  http://10.0.0.100:9999/haproxy-status
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
cache-control: no-cache
content-type: text/html

[root@centos8 ~]#echo ?
0

[root@haproxy ~]#systemctl stop haproxy

[root@centos8 ~]#curl -I  http://haadmin:123456@10.0.0.100:9999/haproxy-status
curl: (7) Failed to connect to 10.0.0.100 port 9999: Connection refused
[root@centos8 ~]#echo?7

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Haproxy-调度算法详解

haproxy-IP透传

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